It is noteworthy that the earliest codes of the 1950s and 1960s had included a quite elaborate chapter about rural construction with earthen materials, which is still present in most recently updated seismic code SP 14.13330.2018 (2018). In coarsed random rubble masonry, the masonry work is carried out in courses such that the stones in a particular course are … Seismic Design of Buildings in Nepal, V2.RV5, reprint. Countries are grouped by region such as the Himalayas, Central Asia, the Caucasus, the Middle East, Northern Africa, and parts of East and South Europe. It further highlights some overall observations of the national seismic and masonry codes that may need attention, for which suggestions and recommendations for improvement are given. This results in too large openings which exceed the limitations of stone walls (and of general masonry walls as well). MUDH (2003). doi: 10.15406/mojce.2018.04.00098. However, one clause allows one-story buildings in rural settlements in zone 7 to be built with adobe, soil blocks and “other low-strength materials.” Possibly for these, the code has included the third strength-category for masonry (between 120 and 60 kPa). ISC-303 (2017). Egyptian Code for the Design and Implementation of Building Works (in Arabic). 5:13. doi: 10.3389/fbuil.2019.00013. After the 1755 Lisbon earthquake, Portugal published what is believed to be one of the first seismic building code ever developed (Borges, 1960), but it took two centuries until the publication of its next and first official code. SNiP I-A.1 (1955). It describes a maximum floor-to-floor height of 3.0 m, minimum wall thickness 0.35 m, and minimum masonry width in corners, as well as for piers, of 600 mm. RDD Construction Of R C C Culvert 3 X 4 50 M X 3 05 M And Guard Wall On Fuljhar Nala Near Village Sake Under Panchayat Aloudi Sen , Due Date: 07-01-2021 ,Tender Value: 0 ,City : Senha block, district Lohardaga., Location: Jharkhand Tender Notice 26464321 The maximum number of stories ranges from just one in Iran and China to five in Croatia, which is a remarkable difference as each corresponding maximum acceleration at site is 0.20g. In this code, flat rubble stone houses with wooden roofs are allowed up to one story in zone 7, with a maximum height of 3.6 m from ground level to halfway the gable. New Delhi: Bureau of Indian Standards. Secondly, it is praiseworthy that a few countries have developed separate codes for “non-engineered” construction types, such as the Indian code IS:13828-1993 (2008). Ozcebe, G., Ramirex, J., Wasti, T., and Yakut, A. 2009 International Building Code. Tbilisi: Minister of Economic Development of Georgia. Traditionally, stone masonry has been practiced widely with many examples of complete villages built with stone walls and wooden reinforcements. In the most unfavorable scenario (zone 3, soil profile IV) for masonry type III, a maximum building ratio of 1:3 (width versus length) is allowed, with a limitation of 2 stories height and 6 m spacing of cross-walls. nHRN EN 1998-1:2011/NA (2011). It distinguishes four types of Ashlar with different degrees of dressing, being fine, semi-fine, coarse and very coarse. Two types of mortar were used: air lime mortar (in two masonry specimens) and hydraulic lime mortar (in the other two specimens). Even better would have been the inclusion of IS.13828 for low-strength masonry, as stone is still widely used in the northern parts of the country, especially in Gilgit-Baltistan province. Prof. S. Imanbekov (Kyrgyzstan), Prof. T. Dadayan and MEng. 7. Hicyilmaz, K. (2011). But on a positive note, school buildings in rubble stone masonry are currently not completely ruled out in Nepal. Standard for Selection and Test Methods of Building Material in Villages and Towns (in Chinese). Experimental study of the in-plane behavior of confined stone masonry walls. Resmî Gazete n.15260 of 09/06/1975 (in Turkish). Diario Oficial del Bicentenario 7 de abril de 2017, Lima. Guideline of Avoiding the Earthquake Danger for Primary and Middle Schools (in Chinese). Official Gazette of the Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia n.39 of 30 September 1964, Belgrade. UNECE (2017). Tashkent: Committee of the Republic of Uzbekistan on Architecture and Construction. Eurokodi 8 – For Construction and Masonry Constructions (in Albanian). Personal communication. For the same reason, all South and Central American countries that have significant seismic hazard are excluded as well. Ankara: Ministry of Public Works and Settlement. Mortar shall not be leaner than 1:6 cement-sand ratio with a minimum compression strength of 3.0 N/mm2 at 28 days, according to the (unrevised) code NBC 109:1994 (2007) “Masonry Unreinforced.”. Until the dissolution of the Soviet Union in 1991, all countries followed the State standards (GOST) and the unified system of mandatory Construction Rules and Regulations (SNiP), sometimes with the addition of Regional Norms. Construction Standard 109 (2008). Nurtaev, B., Khakimov, S., and Miscola, A. - Machine crushed rubble is also available having size of 0 to 150 mm or as per client requirement. Quetta: Staff College Printing Press. Sin El Fil: Lebanese Standards Institution. It was revised several times and new seismic maps for all regions (based on the MSK-64 intensity scale) were introduced in its latest version SFRY-52/90 (1990). Main design requirements according to seven national seismic codes that currently allow nominally reinforced rubble stone masonry in seismic areas. New Delhi: Indian Standards Institution. Seismic Technical Specification for Building Construction in Town and Village (in Chinese). Provisional Technical Rules Applicable to Buildings in the Disaster Area of Agadir (in French). Gazzetta Ufficiale n.95 del 22 Aprile 1909, Rome. This envisions a structured research approach with focus on vernacular and traditional construction techniques, called “Non-Engineered 2.0,” for which a research initiative is started under the name “SMARTnet,” meaning “Seismic Methodologies for Applied Research and Testing of non-engineered techniques.” The findings of this paper will serve as the starting point for the upcoming follow-up paper, which will complement the seismic demand with hand-made base shear calculations for countries that still allow the technique. Decree 372-30.5.2014 (2014). Part 1 General Provisions and Buildings (Sixth Revision). 3.4 Maximum thickness of joint shall be 20 mm for random rubble and 10 mm for course. Resmî Gazete n.12801 of 16/01/1968 (in Turkish). Notes sur les Tremblements de Terre en Algérie, Vol. “Evaluation and strengthening of public buildings after the Kamashi (Uzbekistan) earthquakes in 2000 and 2001,” in Proceedings of the 13th World Conference on Earthquake Engineering, (Vancouver, BC: 13 WCEE Secretariat). B: Sector Reports. Horizontal bands must be included at 3 to 4 levels (always roof and lintel, plus gable band on masonry gables, plus plinth beam on soft soils) and vertical bars only at critical wall connections (and in jambs when openings exceed the recommended dimensions). RDL n.2105 (1937). Random size and shape rocks. These are Nepal, India, China, Georgia, Iran and Croatia. West Conshohocken, PA: ASTM International. The Indian seismic code IS:1893 (part 1)-2016 (2016) also leaves room for interpretation as stone masonry “should preferably be avoided” in seismic zone IV, and construction of schools “should not be permitted.” The overall point is: Any possible misinterpretation can easily be avoided by adding a clear line in the codes, which specifically states whether rubble stone masonry is allowed or not; and to what type of buildings and structures it applies. ABC-2012 (2012). It is only hammer-dressed on the face, the side, and the beds. Eurocode 8: Design of Structures for Earthquake Resistance – Part 1: General Rules, Seismic Actions and Rules for Buildings, Incorporating Corrigendum July 2009. The main mountain ranges of Northern Africa are shown in Figure 4. Their first seismic code BD-19/02 (1959) makes just one mention of “artificial or man-made natural stone,” but without further detail. Sci. A final table summarizes all design requirements as dictated by the national codes in which stone masonry is currently still allowed. – The definition of the loadbearing masonry type “URM” may be perceived as misleading in earthquake engineering, as truly URM is not allowed in any of the codes. This was revised in 1909 to single-story buildings with shaped or “properly broken” rubble stones and river boulders, with a maximum wall spacing of 5m, and reinforced either with concrete bands or with closely spaced horizontal courses of bricks at height intervals of 60cm (RD-18/04/n.193, 1909). Kobe: Ministry of Urban Development and Housing. Baghdad: Ministry of Construction and Housing. N. Aloko (Afghanistan), Dr. G. Ho, MEng. For the experimental program four rubble stone masonry walls (120cm×120cm×70cm) were built using traditional techniques and materials. NBC 203:1994 (2007). Seismic Design Code, Part 1 – Design Provisions for Buildings (in Romanian). Geneva: United Nations Economic Commission for Europe. Compliance with it does not confer immunity from relevant legal requirements, including bylaws.” This makes them indirectly mandatory, but if and how this is enforced, especially in rural areas, is unclear. Tokyo: Japan Society of Civil Engineers. YA and SS assisted in collection of data and reviewed, revised, and restructured the manuscript. Kyrgyzstan is also characterized by a mountainous landscape, with roughly two-thirds of its population living in the rural and mountain areas. Technical Standards for Construction, Decree from the Ministry of Infrastructure and Transport of January 17, 2018 (in Italian). Category 3 masonry must meet a minimum “ultimate axial tensile strength” of 60 kPa, and category 4 at least 30 kPa. PWD Construction Of Approach Road From Lakhamandal Main Road To Ancient Temple Under Marked 13 District 13 Destination At Lakhama , Due Date: 07-01-2021 ,Tender Value: 0 ,City : Lakhamandal, Location: Uttaranchal Tender Notice 26383514 Nepal requires concrete horizontal reinforcements at six levels (four beams or bands and stitches at two levels), China requires two beams and three to four rows of steel rod stitches (depending on story height), India only requires two beams when building on rock soil. SP 14.13330.2018 (2018). Still, lower-strength masonry of category 2 must meet a minimum “ultimate axial tensile strength of 120 kPa,” which may be difficult to determine (or understand) in the rural areas. However, the seismic provisions and the masonry chapter are mostly verbatim copies of chapters 16 and 21 of the Uniform Building Code of 1997 (UBC-1997, 1997), meaning that the information does not cover local practices, and as of today is more than 20 years old. To address all shortcomings, the paper recommends clear descriptions and terminology; the international adaption of NRM as a fourth masonry category; and the development of a stand-alone code specifically for this technique. (B) Unreinforced Ashlar stone masonry with lime-sand mortar. Prof. M. Raghunandan (India), Prof. S. Lodi, Assist. Random rubble masonry foundation is ancient stone foundation method where rough, uneven stones are used to make the foundations. Random rubble masonry wall is most damaged during an earthquake, which can be repaired by grouting with rich cement mortar (1: 1) or with steel mesh and motor. TBDY (2018). AzDTN 2.3-1 (2014). The housing stock mainly consists of single-family masonry buildings, mostly in adobe construction (Pittore and Parolai, 2016). 17:1750074. doi: 10.1142/S0219455417500742. Currently, Bosnia-Herzegovina, Montenegro, Kosovo and North Macedonia are still in the process of adopting and implementing the Eurocodes (Athanasopoulou et al., 2019), therefore the 1981 version of the Yugoslavian code (plus revisions) is still valid in these countries. – Type of mortar: The choice of mortar type has a huge impact on the strength characteristics of the masonry. Powerpoint Presentation. QBC-1937 (1937). – No consensus was found on any of the design specifications and main dimensions between these countries and the differences vary greatly, which raises questions about the reliability and value of the knowledge in this field. PDS-1 (1974). SMARTnet invites experts, professionals, academics as well as final-year students in these fields to exchange their knowledge and to support the project with their time and expertise. (C) Nominally reinforced random rubble stone masonry with cement mortar and brought to courses (all by courtesy of Smart Shelter Foundation). Rules for Construction, Calculation and Execution of Masonry Structures (in Romanian). Coursed Random Rubble Masonry; In this type of rubble, masonry stones are laid in level courses and at certain intervals, headers of one coursed … IS:1893-1970 (1970). URM, as the name implies, has no reinforcements whatsoever. Hopefully, this updated version will include these technical details, and addresses constructions in rubble stone according to the current needs in the mountainous areas of the country. Quetta Development Authority Building Rules, 1976. The Typology of the Residential Building Stock in Albania and the Modelling of its Low-Carbon Transformation. Also, the Spanish National Annexes mention nothing different than is described in the Eurocodes. Stone and Reinforced Masonry Structures (in Armenian). (2019). State Committee for Construction and Architecture (1957). Masonry: Unreinforced, Reprint. The stones … Kathmandu: Department of Urban Development and Building Construction. Prof. K. Shrestha and MEng. Both codes have a disclaimer on the cover page, stating that “the publication represents a standard of good practice and therefore takes the form of recommendations. As the process of shaping is time-consuming and costly, Ashlar is not often used for rural and remote construction in developing countries. Concrete block masonry. 2 & 3, Reaffirmed 2018. SN 8-57 (1958). OSDC-2013 (2013). Built Environ. Bucharest: Ministry of Regional Development and Public Administration. ASTM C615/C615M (2018). This paper compares and summarizes design specifications and construction requirements, with a specific focus on “nominally reinforced rubble stone masonry (NRM) with cement mortar and wooden diaphragms in seismic areas.” Currently, the technique is only allowed and described in some detail in the codes of Nepal, India, China, Tajikistan, Georgia, Iran and Croatia. IS:1893-1962 (1962). GOST 4001-2013 (2014). Regarding building typology, Standard GB/T 33735-2017 (2017) for “Avoiding Earthquake Danger for Schools” refers to the National seismic code GB 50011. Regarding stone masonry, the codes of interest were NBC 202:1994 (2007) “Mandatory Rules of Thumb for Loadbearing Masonry” and NBC 203:1994 (2007) “Guidelines for Earthquake-Resistant Construction of Low-Strength Masonry,” but the information was perceived as highly contradicting and confusing (Schildkamp and Araki, 2019a). P100-78 (1978). Between 2007 and 2012 the Dutch NGO Smart Shelter Foundation (SSF) built earthquake-resistant schools in rubble stone masonry in Nepal, and these buildings have survived the 2015 Gorkha earthquakes without any significant damage. Decreto-Lei n.38:382 - General Regulation for Urban Buildings (in Portuguese). State Journal n.65 of 13 August, 1957, Sofia. KTP-2-78 (1978). ASTM C568/C568M (2015). before lying, all projecting corners of stones are slightly knocked off. View all After the 1883 Casamicciola earthquake, only single-story masonry buildings with light roofs were allowed in this region, either with ordinary bricks or tuff stones grinded into a parallelepiped shape (RE-09/01/n.212, 1884). The first official code PDS-1 (1974) had added dry-stacked rubble stone, as well as roughly cut Ashlar, but without mention of rubble stone masonry with mortar. The kingdom of Bhutan, where stone masonry is still abundantly used, does not have a seismic or masonry code of its own and refers to the Indian codes (Thinley et al., 2017). Dhaka: Housing and Building Research Institute. Iraqi Seismic Code 303 (in Arabic). Seismic Rules for the Design of Housing and Socio-Cultural, Agricultural and Industrial Buildings (in Romanian). Bishkek: State Agency for Architecture and Construction under the Government of the Kyrgyz Republic. The information in this chapter remained nearly identical for 28 years, but in the most recent fourth edition Standard 2800 (2015) it is renamed to “Provisions for Masonry Buildings with Ties.” The chapter solely describes Confined Masonry with some alternatives for materialization including confined rubble stone masonry, which is achieving promising test results (Ahmadizadeh and Shakib, 2016). – A further recommendation is to develop a stand-alone code for rubble stone masonry buildings, to avoid misinterpretation and interchange of incompatible design specifications that are meant for other techniques. Repointing is necessary when the bedding or jointing mortar washes out and the stones start to become loose and at risk of falling out of place. Beijing: Ministry of Housing and Urban-Rural Development of the People’s Republic of China. It describes a minimum required thickness of 350 mm for URM shear walls with natural stone units, but only for moderate seismicity zones with an acceleration value ag,urm≤ 0.20g, and with the addition of horizontal and vertical reinforcements (making it NRM). Algiers: Ministry of Housing and Reconstruction. The Alpine-Himalayan belt is one of the most earthquake-prone regions in the world, caused by movement of the Indian Plate toward the Eurasian Plate with a rate of approximately 35–50 mm between western to eastern plate boundaries (Jade et al., 2017). All authors contributed to the article and approved the submitted version. Tunisia and Libya have not yet developed national seismic codes up to date. Brussels: European Committee for Standardization. This is a key research objective we aim to validate in this series of papers. The main mountain ranges of the Middle East are shown in Figure 3. All other codes require just one horizontal tie-beam at floor or roof level, with additional rows of bricks in Georgia. Iran is situated in a very active part of the Alpine-Himalayan seismic belt. Copyright © 2020 Schildkamp, Silvestri and Araki. For instance, the Lebanese code NL-135 (2012) refers to either the French or US-based codes (but intends to adopt Eurocode), the Syrian code is basically a translation of UBC-97 (SAC-2012-2, 2013), Israel goes with ASCE-7 (SI-431-1995, 2013), Iraq embraces the 2012 International Building Code (IBC) (ISC-303, 2017) and Oman largely follows Eurocode (OSDC-2013, 2013). Gazzetta Ufficiale del Regno d’Italia n.212 del 1 Settembre 1884, Rome. Aydan, Ö, Ulusay, R., Kumsar, H., and Konagai, K. (2012). C. Zhong, and Assist. Design and Construction with Reinforced Earth, Annex – Decree n.121-2017-VIVIENDA from the Ministry of Housing, Construction and Sanitation (in Spanish). Potsdam: GFZ German Research Center for Geosciences. New Delhi: Indian Standards Institution. This raises questions about the completeness and correctness, as well as the reliability and actual value of the knowledge in this field. Tajikistan is extremely mountainous, with mountains covering 93% of its surface, of which more than half are situated above 3,000 m. Centrally located are the Pamir Mountains and all borders are surrounded by mountain ranges, such as the Hindu Kush with Afghanistan, Tian Shan with China, the Alay Mountains with Kyrgyzstan, and the Turkestan Range with Uzbekistan. Figure 2. Kathmandu: Government of Nepal. BNBC-2017 (2017). Paris: Société de Diffusion des Techniques du Bâtiment et des Travaux Publics. When following their annex to Eurocode 8 (nHRN EN 1998-1:2011/NA, 2011) for URM with required nominal reinforcements, then “simple masonry buildings” in importance class II (houses) are allowed without mandatory verification, as follows: Maximum height depending on the acceleration at site (2 stories for ag = 0.30g or 5 stories for ag ≤ 0.20g, both on rock soil) and a minimum given percentual area of shear walls. Section 1: Residential, Public, Industrial Buildings and Structures (in Turkmen and Russian). Standard 2800 (2015). For URM unfortunately, no further dimensions nor details are given, in contrast to a separate code that Morocco has published for earthen structures in seismic areas, as “this cultural heritage has great aesthetic quality and remarkable adaptation to climatic conditions” (RPCTerre-2011, 2013). GEM Technical Report 2018-01. P100-1 (2013). Further, the minimum demand for daylight in classrooms is specified in the design regulation for rural school buildings (Construction Standard 109, 2008), recommending a minimum ratio of glass surface versus floor area of 1:6. Vol. After the 1979 Montenegro earthquake, the new code SFRY-31/81 (1981) was published. The rules for stone remained the same until the code of 2007 (DBYBHY, 2007), but since the most recent revision of 2018, rubble stone masonry is no longer allowed (TBDY, 2018). Cost analysis of mountain schools in Nepal: comparison of earthquake resistant features in rubble stone masonry vs. Stones shall be set and laid by wooden hammer (mallet) and voids, if any, packed and consolidated by stone chips Chips used shall not be more than 15% by volume of masonry. ’ Italia n.212 del 1 Settembre 1884, Rome spaces between are followed as literally as possible aiming... Hazard with estimated PGA > 0.6g n.279, November 21 of 1974, Madrid behave different than Reinforced... 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